Hilary of Poitiers
(315 - 367)

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HILARY, Bishop of Poitiers (Pictaviurn), the place of his birth, was b. early in the fourth century; d. 366. He shone like a clear star alongside of the great champions of the Nicene Creed, - Athanasius, Basil, and the two Gregories. Among the teachers of the West of his day lie was beyond dispute the first, and bore a strong resemblance to Tertullian, both in disposition and scientific method. He employed an elegant Latin style. His parents were Pagans, and of high social standing. Hilary enjoyed fine facilities for education. In the introduction to his treatise on the Trinity he describes the stages a Pagan passes through in reaching the knowledge of God, which heathen philosophy reveals dimly, Christianity clearly. This description evidently depicts his own experience. lIe had reached the years of manhood when he professed Christianity. A statement of uncertain value speaks of his wife and daughter as following him. About the year 350 the popular voice called him to the bishopric of Poitiers.

The times were times of conflict. The Emperor Constantius determined to make Arianism the prevailing creed of the West, as it had become of the East. This end he endeavored to secure by intimidating the bishops. Hilary placed himself in antagonism to the emperor, and devoted all his energies to resist the spread of Arianism. His persuasions induced a number of the Gallic bishops to refuse communion with the Arian bishop of Arles, - Saturninus; and in a letter to the emperor (355) he calls upon him to desist from his policy of coercion. At the Council of Beziers (356), presided over by Saturninus, the Arians were in the majority, and silenced Hilary by their tumult when he arose to defend the Nicene faith. A few months afterward he was banished to Phrygia, where his leisure was employed hi studies of the Greek language and literature, and in making himself acquainted with the parties and doctrines of the Eastern Church. In 359 he wrote his work on synods (De Synodis), - an historical survey of the confessions of the Eastern Church, with a definition of his own position. The best product of the exile (359 or 360) was a treatise on the Trinity (Lib. XII. de Trinitate). Aroused by the Arian decrees of the Council of Constantinople (360), he wrote a second letter to Constantius, offering to defend his faith publicly before him and a synod. The court did not grant his proposal, but, deeming that he was doing more mischief in the East than he could do in Gaul, ordered him back to Poitiers.

On his return, Hilary was regarded as the champion of the Nicene faith. The Council of Paris (361), under his lead, excommunicated Saturninus. He now sought to clear Italy of Arianism, and appeared suddenly at Milan, to prefer charges against its bishop, Auxentius. The latter, however, stood in high favor with the emperor, and Hilary was driven out of the city. he explained his course in this matter in a work against Auxentius (365). According to Sulpicius Severus (Chron. ii. 45), he died the following year.

Hilary was one of the most conspicuous and original characters of early Christianity. His distinguishing characteristics were fidelity to the church creed, acuteness in argument, and resolution in action. He knew no fear. He wielded a keen sword when he defended apostolic truth against heretics, or vindicated the prerogatives of the Church against the encroachments of the civil power. Yet, when the differences concerned non-essentials, he displayed a conciliatory disposition. His power lay essentially in his thorough acquaintance with the Scriptures. His earliest literary labor was a Commentary on Matthew, and one of the latest an Exposition of the Psalms. His other exegetical works are lost. Much to be regretted is the loss of his collection of hymns which the Spanish churches used.

His work on the Trinity is a scriptural confirmation of the philosophic doctrine of the divinity of Christ, and is of permanent value. It was not a mere restatement of traditional orthodoxy, but a fresh and living utterance of his own experience and study. In the discussion of the co-essentiality of the Son, Hilary lays emphasis on the Scripture titles and affirmations, and especially on his birth from the Father, which he insists involves identity of essence. In the elaboration of the divine-human personality of Christ, he is more original and profound. The incarnation was a move went of the Logos towards humanity in order to lift humanity up to participation in the divine nature. It consisted in a self-emptying of himself, and the assumption of human nature. In this process lie lost none of his divine nature; and, even during the humiliation, he continued to reign everywhere in heaven and on earth. Christ assumed body, soul, and spirit, and passed through all stages of human growth, his body being really subject to pain and death. Redemption is the result of Christ’s voluntary substitution of himself, out of love, in our stead. Between the God-man and the believer there is a vital communion. As the Logos is in the Father, by reason of his divine birth, so we are in him, and become partakers of his nature, by regeneration and the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper.

The christology of Hilary is full of fresh and inspiring thoughts, which deserve to be better known than they are. He was created a doctor of the Catholic Church by Pius IX., at the synod of Bordeaux, 1851.

Semisch, "HILARY, Bishop of Poitiers," Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn., Vol. 2. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. pp.922-923.

Primary Sources

On-line Resource Hilary of Poitiers (Christian Classic Ethereal Library)
Book or monograph Hilary of Poitiers, On the Councils, W. Sanday, trans.Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. 9. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1898.
Book or monograph Hilary of Poitiers, The Trinity, The Fathers of the Church, Vol. 25,. S. McKenna, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1954. Pbk. ISBN: 0813200253. pp.555.

Secondary Sources

Article in Journal or Book J. van Amersfoort, "Some Influence of the Diatessaron of Tatian on the Gospel Text of Hilary of Poitiers," Studia Patristica 15 (1984): 200-05.
Article in Journal or Book G.T. Armstrong, "The Genesis Theophanies of Hilary of Poitiers," Studia Patristica 10 (1970): 203-07.
Article in Journal or Book T.D. Barnes, "Hilary of Poitiers on his Exile," Vigiliae Christianae 46.2 (1992): 129-140.
Book or monograph C.F.A. Borchardt, Hilary of Poitiers' Role in the Arian Struggle. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966.
Article in Journal or Book C.F.A. Borchardt, "Sulpicius Severus' Dependency on Hilary of Poitiers in His Chronica," Acta Patristica et Byzantina 5 (1994): 12-27.
Book or monograph Paul C. Burns, The Christology in Hilary of Poitiers' Commentary on Mathew. Studia Ephemeridis "Augustinianum" 16. Roma: Institutum Patristicum "Augustinianum", 1981. p.149.
Article in Journal or Book Paul C.Burns, "Hilary of Poitiers' Road to Beziers: Politics or Religion?" Journal of Early Christian Studies 2.3 (1994): 273-289.
Article in Journal or Book Allan M. Harman, "Speech about the Trinity: With Special Reference to Novatian, Hilary and Calvin," Scottish Journal of Theology 26 (1973): 385-
Article in Journal or Book Christopher B. Kaiser, "The Development of Johannine Motifs in Hilary's Doctrine of the Trinity," Scottish Journal of Theology 29.3 (1976): 237-47.
Article in Journal or Book John M. McDermott, "Hilary of Poitiers: The Infinite Nature of God," Vigiliae Christianae 27.3 (1973): 172-202.
On-line Resource Arthur James Mason [1851-1928], "Note on the Text of the Hymns of Hilary," Journal of Theological Studies 5 No 20 (July 1904): 636.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph E.P. Meijering, Hilary of Poitiers on the Trinity. Leiden: E J Brill, 1982. Pbk .ISBN: 9004067345. pp.199.
Book or monograph George M Newlands, Hilary of Poitiers: A Study in Theological Method. European University Studies, Series 23: Theology. Bern: Peter Lang, 1978. Pbk. ISBN: 3261031336. pp.230.
Article in Journal or Book P. Smulders, "A Bold Move of Hilary of Poitiers ("Est Ergo Erans")," Vigiliae Christianae 42.2 (1988): 121-131.
On-line Resource Arthur Sumner Walpole [1850/51-1920], "Hymns Attributed to Hilary of Poitiers," Journal of Theological Studies 6 No 24 (July 1905): 599-603.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book Joseph Wawrykow, "The Summa Contra Gentiles Reconsidered: On the Contribution of the De Trinitate of Hilary of Poitiers," Thomist 58.4 (1994): 617-634.
Book or monograph Hilary of PoitiersLionel R. Wickham, Editor. Hilary of Poitiers. Liverpool University Press, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0853235724. pp.176.
Book or monograph P.T. Wild, The Divinisation of Man According to St. Hilary of Poitiers. Mundelein: St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, 1950.
Article in Journal or Book Daniel H. Williams, "A Reassessment of the Early Career and Exile of Hilary of Poitiers," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 42.2 (1991): 202-217.
Article in Journal or Book Daniel H. Williams, "The Anti-Arian Campaigns of Hilary of Poitiers and the 'Liber Contra Auxentium'," Church History 61.1 (1992): 7-22.


On-line Resource John Gibson Cazenove [1821-1896], St. Hillary of Poitiers and St. Martin of TourJohn Gibson Cazenove [1821-1896], St. Hilary of Poitiers and St. Martin of Tours. The Fathers For English Readers. London: SPCK, 1883. Hbk. pp.269. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
On-line Resource Frederic William Farrar [1831-1903], Lives of the Fathers. Sketches of Church History in Biography, 2 VolsFrederic William Farrar [1831-1903], Lives of the Fathers. Sketches of Church History in Biography, 2 Vols. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1907. Hbk. pp.781+737. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]

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