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Jerome
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Jerome (from André Thevet)

Jerome (from André Thevet)
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Synopsis

Jerome, or Eusebius Hieronymus as he is sometimes known, was born at Stridon in Dalmatia. His home town was destroyed by the Goths in 379 and thereafter ceased to exist making it impossible to locate today.[1] We know few details about his parents, except that they were both Christians and that his father, Eusebius, was a well-to-do local landowner.[2] After completing his elementary education at a local school Jerome was sent to a school in Rome, where he received what at the time was considered an excellent classical education.[3] It is probable that by the time he left school he was fluent in Latin and knew a little Greek.[4] Jerome is remembered primarily for his translation of the Bible into Latin under the patronage of Damasus (304-384), the bishop of Rome (366-384). Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew and extensive classical education made him the ideal man for the task. His translation, which was in a Latin style used by the common people, became known as the Vulgate, the standard text of the Roman Catholic church until the Second Vatican Council (1962-65).[5] Jerome's version superseded the fragmentary and generally poorly translated Latin versions then available,[6] but was not without its own shortcomings.[7]

Jerome also wrote extensively, producing commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, as well as works on monasticism and treatises against various heresies. Although his background knowledge and linguistic ability were excellent, his method of exegesis swung wildly between that of rabbinic Judaism, the literalism of Antioch and the allegorical interpretation of Alexandria. While the literal reading tends to dominate Jerome nowhere rejects the other two.[8] J.N.D. Kelly comments that Jerome's hermeneutic worked "on the principle that this allegorical or spiritual interpretation should only be developed after the direct, literal sense of Scripture has been established."[9] At least one scholar recognises a development in Jerome's hermeneutic through his lifetime: At first the Alexandrian method attracted him, especially the translation of Hebrew names as a basis for the spiritual interpretation. Then the Origenist controversy warned him off an exaggerated use of allegory, and his own studies in Hebrew increased his interest in the letter. His last commentary, on Jeremias, is purely literal.[10] When he was in his forties Jerome spent two or three years as a hermit in the Syrian desert, at which time he learned Hebrew and a little Syraic.[11] His idealised picture of monasticism was shattered by the malicious behaviour of his neighbours, so Jerome left the desert and shortly afterwards was ordained as a priest in Antioch.[12]

These bad experiences did not prevent Jerome from continually exhorting others to embrace a monastic lifestyle, or from later establishing his own monasteries at Bethlehem.[13] Asceticism had become a subject of controversy in Jerome's day. There was a growing alarm among ordinary Western Christians that an ascetic lifestyle was becoming a requirement of true Christianity.[14] Some attempted to challenge the teachings of the church hierarchy, arguing from Scripture that marriage was instituted and blessed by God and was not defiling. The behaviour of many of the monks was ample proof to many that their lifestyle did not end their love of sinning (cf. Col. 2:20-23). Jerome's scathing responses resulted in him becoming extremely unpopular.[15] Nevertheless, his views became those of the Roman Catholic church down to the Renaissance.[16]

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References

[1] J.N.D. Kelly, Jerome: His Life, Writings and Controversies. (London: Duckworth, 1975), 1-5.

[2] Kelly, Jerome, 5-6.

[3] Kelly, Jerome, 9-11.

[4] Kelly, Jerome, 14.

[5] Terrence G. Kardong, "Vulgate," Everett Ferguson, editor, Encylopedia of Early Christianity. (New York: Garland, 1990), 932-933.

[6] Bruce M. Metzger, "Old Latin Versions," Everett Ferguson, editor, Encylopedia of Early Christianity. (New York: Garland, 1990), 660-661.

[7] Kelly, Jerome, 86-87, 162-163.

[8] Rusch, 81.

[9] Kelly, Jerome, 60, cf. 151.

[10] Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1941), 8.

[11] See further Kelly, Jerome, 46-56.

[12] F.L. Cross & E.A. Livingstone, editors. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edn. (Oxford: OUP, 1997), 731.

[13] Kelly, Jerome, 129-140.

[14] Kelly, Jerome, 104.

[15] Kelly, Jerome, 108-115.

[16] Kelly, Jerome, 106.

Bibliographies

Article in Journal or Book T.P. Halton & R.D. Sider, "A Decade of Patristic Scholarship 1970-1979," The Classical World, Vol. 76 (1982-1983): 353-356.

Primary Sources

On-line Resource Jerome, The Chronicle of St. Jerome.
On-line Resource Jerome (Christian Classic Ethereal Library)
On-line Resource Jerome, Commentary on Daniel.
Book or monograph Jerome, Dogmatic and Polemical Works, The Fathers of the Church, Vol. 53, J.N. Hritzu, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1992. Hbk. ISBN: 0813200539. pp.410. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Jerome, Homilies, 1-59,The Fathers of the Church, Vols. 48, M.L. Ewald, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1992. Hbk. ISBN: 0813200482. pp.430. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Jerome, Homilies, Nos. 60-96, The Fathers of the Church, Vols. 57, M.L. Ewald, trans. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1966. Hbk. ISBN: 0813200571. pp.303. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men, E.C. Richardson, trans. Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. 3. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1980. Hbk. ISBN: 056709412X. pp.359-384.
Book or monograph Jerome, Letters and Select Works, W.H. Freemantle, trans. Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. 6. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1980. Hbk. ISBN: 0567094154.
Book or monograph Jerome: LettersJerome, Letters [Letters 1-22], C.C. Mierow, trans. Ancient Christian Writers., Vol. 33. New York: Newman, 1963. Hbk. ISBN: 0809100878. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Jerome, Life of Paul, Life of Hilarion, Life of Malchus, M.L. Ewald, trans. R.J. Deferrari, Christian Biographies. The Fathers of the Church, Vol. 15. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1952. pp.217-297.

Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Jeremy deQuesnay Adams, The "Populus" of Augustine and Jerome: A Study in the Patristic Sense of Community. New haven, 1971. ISBN: 0300014023. pp.278. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Some Notes on theDream of Saint Jerome," Philologus 128 (1984): 119-26.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Gregory of Nazianzenus and Jerome: Some Remarks," M.A. Flower & M. Toher, eds., Georgica, Greek Studies in Honour of George Cawkwell. London, 1991. pp.13-24.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Hierosolymam militaturus pergerem. A Note on the Location of Jerome's Dream," Koinonia 17 (1993): 81-3.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "The Date of the Dream of Saint Jerome," Studi Classici e Orientali 43 (1993): 263-73.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Ambrose and Jerome: the Opening Shot," Mnemosyne 46 (1993): 364-300.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Jerome, Ambrose and Gregory Nazianzen," Vichiana 4 (1993): 294-300.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Juvenal and Jerome," CPb 89 (1994): 67-72.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Jerome's Use of Scripture Before and After hi s Dream," Illinois Classical Studies 20 (1995): 183-90.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Who is accusator meus at the Start of Jerome's Liber de optimo genere interpretandi (Epist. 57)?," Latomus 55 (1996): 876-7.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Pope Siricius' 'Simplicity' (Jerome , epist. 127, 9, 3)," Vetera Christianorum 33 (1996): 25-38.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Jerome on Ambrose. The Preface of the Translation of Origen's Homilies on Luke," Revue Benedictine 107 (1997): 5-14.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Jerome's Vow 'Never to Reread the Classics': Some Observations," Revue des Etudes Anciennes 101 (1999): 161-7.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Jerome on Marcella. Epist. 127, 10, 4," Bollettino di Studi Latini 29 (1999): 564-70.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Biblia pagana: Classical Echoes in the Vulgate," Augustinianum 40 (2000): 77-87.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Jerome, Seneca, Juvenal," Revue Belge de Philologie et d'histoire 78 (2000): 119-28.
Book or monograph Neil Adkin, Jerome on Virginity: A Commentary on the Libellus De Virginitate Servanda (Letter 22). ARCA, Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs, 42. Francis Cairns Publications, 2003. Hbk. ISBN: 0905205383. pp.480. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book M. Allen, "The Martyrdom of Jerome," Journal of Early Christian Studies 3 (1995): 211-13.
Article in Journal or Book Neil Adkin, "Cicero's Orator and Jerome," Vigiliae Christianae 51.1 (1997): 25-39.
Article in Journal or Book James Barr, "St. Jerome's Appreciation of Hebrew," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 49 (1966): 280-302.
Article in Journal or Book James Barr, "St. Jerome and the Sounds of Hebrew," Journal of Semitic Studies 12.1 (1967): 1-36.
Article in Journal or Book A.D. Booth, "The Date of Jerome's Birth," Phoenix 33 (1979): 346-52.
Article in Journal or Book A.D. Booth, "The Chronology of Jerome's Early Years," Phoenix, Vol. 25 (1981): 237-259.
Book or monograph Jay Braverman, Jerome's Commentary on Daniel: A Study of Comparative Jewish and Christian Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 7. Washington, D.C., 1978. Pbk. ISBN: 091517006X. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book C. Brown Tkacz, "Ovid, Jerome and the Vulgate," Studia Patristica 33 (1997): 378-82.
Article in Journal or Book V. Burrus, "The Heretical Woman as Symbol in (bishop) Alexander, Athanasius, Epiphanius, and Jerome," Harvard Theological Review 84 (1991): 229-48.
Article in Journal or Book A. Ceresa-Gastoldo, "The Biographical Method of Jerome's De viris illustribus," Studia Patristica 15.1 (1984): 55-68.
Book or monograph Elizabeth A. Clark, Jerome, Chrysostom, and Friends. Essays and Translations. Studies in Women and Religion, Vol. 2. New York / Toronto: Edwin Mellen Press, 1982. Hbk. ISBN: 088946541X. pp.254. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Elizabeth A. Clark, "The Place of Jerome's Commentary on Ephesians in the Origenist Controversy: The Apokatastasis and Ascetic Ideals," Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 41 (1987): 154-171.
Book or monograph Elizabeth A. Clark, The Origenist Controversy: The Cultural Construction of an Early Christian Debate. Princeton University Press, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 0691031738. pp.300. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book E. Coleiro, "St. Jerome's Lives of the Hermits," Vigiliae Christianae 11 (1957): 161-78.
Article in Journal or Book Marvin L. Colker, "Previously Unpublished Letters Ascribed to St. Jerome," Recherches de Theol et Phil Medievales 67.2 (2000): 195-217.
Article in Journal or Book T. Comerford Lawler, "Jerome's First Letter to Damascus," in Kyriakon Festschrift J. Quasten. Münster, 1970. pp.548-52.
Book or monograph P. Courcelle, Late Latin Writers and Their Greek Sources. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969. Hbk. ISBN: 0674511859. pp.48-127. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book P. Cox Miller, "The Blazing Body. Ascetic Desire in Jerome's Letter to Eustochium," Journal of Early Christian Studies 1 (1993): 21-45.
Article in Journal or Book J.T. Cummings, "St. Jerome as Translator and as Exegete," Studia Patristica 12 (1975): 279-82.
Article in Journal or Book John Curran, "Jerome and the Sham Christians of Rome," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 48.2 (1997): 213-229.
Article in Journal or Book John Curran, "Jerome and the Sham Christians of Rome," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 48.2 (1997): 213-229.
Article in Journal or Book W.J. Dalton, "St. Jerome on the INspiration and Inerrancy of the Scriptures," Australasian Catholic Report 33 (1956): 103-16.
Book or monograph Harald Hagendahl, Latin Fathers and the Classics: A Study on the Apologists, Jerome and Other Christian Writers. Göteberg: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1958. pp.91-328.
Updated version: "Jerome and the Latin Classics," Vigilae Christianae, Vol. 28 (1974): 216-227.
Article in Journal or Book C.T.R. Hayward, "Jewish traditions in Jerome's commentary on Jeremiah and the Targum of Jeremiah," Proceedings of the Irish Biblical Association 9 (1985): 100-20.
Article in Journal or Book Robert Hayward, "Saint Jerome and the Aramaic Targumim," Journal of Semitic Studies 32.1 (1987): 105-123.
Article in Journal or Book Robert Hayward, "Some Observations on St. Jerome's `Hebrew Questions on Genesis' and the Rabbinic Tradition," Proceedings of the Irish Biblical Association 13 (1990): 58-76.
Article in Journal or Book D.F. Heimann, "The Polemical Application of Scripture in St. Jerome," Studia Patristica 12 (1975): 309-16.
Article in Journal or Book Ronald E. Heine, "Recovering Origen's Commentary on Ephesians from Jerome," Journal of Theological Studies 51.2 (2000): 478-514.
On-line Resource Henry Hoyle Howorth [1842-1923], "The Influence of St Jerome on the Canon of the Western Church. I," Journal of Theological Studies 10 No 40 (July 1909): 481-496. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book David G. Hunter, "Resistance to the Virginal Ideal in Late-Fourth Century Rome: the Case of Jovinian," Theological Studies 48 (1987): 45-69.
Article in Journal or Book David G. Hunter, "Helvidius, Jovinian, and the Virginity of Mary in Late Fourt-Century Rome," Journal of Early Christian Studies 1 (1993): 47-71.
Article in Journal or Book David G. Hunter, "The Virgin, the Bride, and the Church: Reading Psalm 45 in Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine," Church History 69.2 (2000): 281-303.
Article in Journal or Book R.G. Jenkins, "The Biblical Text of the Commentaries of Eusebius and Jerome on Isaiah," Abr-nahrain. Leiden, 22 (1983/84): 64-78.
Book or monograph Kamesar: Jerome, the Hebrew Bible, and Greek ScholarshipAdam Kamesar, Jerome, the Hebrew Bible, and Greek Scholarship. A Study of the Questiones Hebraicae in Genesim. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 0198147279. pp.176. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book A.F.J. Klijn, "Jerome's Quotations from a Nazoraean Interpretation of Isaiah," Recherches de science religieusse 60 (1972): 241-55.
Article in Journal or Book Matthew Kraus, "Christians, Jews, and Pagans in Dialogue: Jerome on Ecclesiastes 12:1-7," Hebrew Union College Annual 70-71 (2000): 183-231.
Article in Journal or Book R. Loewe, "Jerome's Treatment of an Anthropomorphism," Vetus Testamentum 2 (1952): 261-72.
Article in Journal or Book Josef Lössl, "Sature, Fiction and Reference to Reality in Jerome's Epistula," 117 Vigilae Christianae 52 (1998): 172-92.
Article in Journal or Book William C. McDermott, "Saint Jerome and Domitius Afer," Vigiliae Christianae 34.1 (1980): 19-23.
Article in Journal or Book William C. McDermott, "Saint Jerome and Pagan Greek Literature," Vigilae Christianae, 36.4 (1982): 372-382.
Article in Journal or Book P. Meyvaert, "Excerpts from an Unknown Treatise of Jerome to Gaudentius of Bescia," Revue Benedictine 96 (1986): 203-18.
Article in Journal or Book Patricia Cox Miller, "Jerome's Centaur: A Hyper-Icon of the Desert," Journal of Early Christian Studies 4.2 (1996): 209-233.
Article in Journal or Book F.X. Murphy, "The Problem of St. Jerome," American Economic Review 117 (1947): 102-7.
Book or monograph F.X. Murphy, ed. A Monument to Saint Jerome: Essays on Some Aspects of His Life, Works and Influence. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1952.
Article in Journal or Book Hillel I. Newman, "Jerome's Judaizers," Journal of Early Christian Studies 9.4 (2001): 421-452.
Article in Journal or Book Robert J. O'Connell, "When Saintly Fathers Feuded: The Correspondence Between Augustine and Jerome," Thought, 54 (215) (1979): 344-364.
Book or monograph W.A. Oldfather, Studies in the Text Tradition of St Jerome's Vitae Patrum. Urbana, 1943.
Article in Journal or Book John C. Olin, "Erasmus and St. Jerome," Thought: A Review of Culture and Idea 54 (215) (1979): 313-321.
On-line Resource Rev. Samuel Osgood, "Jerome and His Times," Bibliotheca Sacra 5 No. 17 (1848): 117-147.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
On-line Resource Arthur Stanley Pease, “Notes on St. Jerome’s Tractates on the Psalms,” Journal of Biblical Literature 26.2 (1907): 107-131.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Article in Journal or Book A. Penna, "The Vow of Jephthah in the Interpretation of St. Jerome," Studia Patristica 4 (1961): 162-70.
Article in Journal or Book D.E. Pilarczyk, "Jonah's Gourd: Augustine and Jerome on a New Translation of Sacred Scripture (Vg)," Bible Today 26 (1966): 1848-52.
Article in Journal or Book Stefan Rebenich,"Jerome: The 'Vir Trilinguis' and the 'Hebraica Veritas'," Vigiliae Christianae 47.1 (1993): 50-77.
Book or monograph Rebenich: JeromeStefan Rebenich, Jerome. The Early Church Fathers. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 0415118387. pp.224. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Rice: Saint Jerome in the RenaissanceEugene F. Rice, Jr., Saint Jerome in the Renaissance. Johns Hopkins Symposia in Comparative History, No 13. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985. Pbk. ISBN: 0801837472. pp.304. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book David Satran, "Fingernails and Hair: Anatomy and Exegesis in Tertullian," Journal of Theological Studies 40.1 (1989): 116-120.
Article in Journal or Book M.A. Schatkin, "The Influence of Origen Upon St. Jerome's Commentary on Galatians," Vigiliae Christianae 24 (1970): 49-58.
Article in Journal or Book J. Schwartz, "Jerome and the Jews of Judea," Zion 47.2 (1982): 186-191.
Article in Journal or Book J.H.D. Scourfield, "A Note on Jerome's Homily on the Rich Man and Lazarus," Journal of Theological Studies 48.2 (1997): 536-539.
Article in Journal or Book W.H. Semple, "St. Jerome as a Biblical Translator," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 45 (1965s): 227-43.
Article in Journal or Book The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1.H.F.D. Sparks, "Jerome as a Biblical Scholar," P.R. Ackroyd & C.F. Evans, eds. The Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1. From Beginnings to Jerome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Hbk. ISBN: 0521074185. pp.510-541. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book E.F. Sutcliffe, "The Name Vulgate," Biblica 29 (1948): 345-52.
Article in Journal or Book J.J. Thierry, "Some Notes on Epistula XXII of Jerome," Vigiliae Christianae 21.2 (1967): 120-127.
Article in Journal or Book T.C.G. Thornton, "Jerome adn the 'Hebrew Gospel According to Matthew'," Studia Patristica 28 (1993): 118-22.
Article in Journal or Book M. Vessey, "Jerome's Origen: The Making of a Christian Literary Persona," Studia Patristica 28 (1993): 135-45.
Article in Journal or Book G. Vidén, "St. Jerome of Female Chastity: Subjugating the Elements of Desire," Symbolae Osloenses 73 (1998): 139-57.
Book or monograph D.S. Weisen, St. Jerome as a Satirist: A Study in Christian Latin Thought and Letters. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1964.
Book or monograph C. White, The Correspondence (394-419) between Jerome and Augustine of Hippo. Lewiston, 1990.

Biographies

Book or monograph Kelly: JeromeJ.N.D. Kelly, Jerome: His Life, Writings and Controversies. Vendor: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998. Pbk. ISBN: 071561231X. pp.352. {CBD}
On-line Resource Jerome, Scholar, Translator, and Theologian (James E. Kiefer)

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