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Josephus
(AD 37/38 - c. 100)


Josephus (from a pre-1900 edn of The Antiquities)

Josephus (from a pre-1900 edition of The Antiquities)
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Synopsis

The writings of the Jewish historian Josephus are invaluable as a primary source of New Testament background material. Without them it would be all but impossible to verify or in some cases even to understand some of the historical references in the Gospels and in the book of Acts.[1] Born a priest of royal (Hasmonean) descent,[2] he was captured by the Roman army in Galilee in AD 67, were he was leading the Jewish revolt against them. Later, writing with the sponsorship of the Roman Emperor Vespasian,[3] he appears to have had two main purposes. These were to demonstrate both the veracity of the Jewish religion and to promote his thesis that the Romans were God's instruments in punishing Israel for her departure from the observance of the Law. Not surprisingly Josephus was regarded as a traitor by his own people.[4]

In the past the works of Josephus have suffered widespread misunderstanding and misuse.[5] They owe their survival initially to their Imperial patronage, and then to their appropriation by the Christian church, which treasured them for their references to Jesus, John the Baptist, and other New Testament characters and places.[6] They were also used to support the belief that God has rejected Judaism,[7] despite the fact that this was the exact opposite of what Josephus set out to demonstrate! His writings were used widely in the early church.[8] A late tradition held that he actually became a Christian, but Origen specifically denied this.[9] Origen is thought to have based his apologetic work Against Celsus on the model provided by Josephus' Against Apion.[10] His Life is seen by many as the first Western biography,[11] but its stylistic nature means that it is not always factually accurate.

Studies by scholars of Josephus' works have shown that he had both a thorough understanding of Hebrew and Palestinian exegetical techniques.[12] Faced with the challenge of writing for a foreign audience he did not relapse into wholesale allegory[13] or omit large parts of the biblical account. Rather he strove always to be as faithful to the text as possible, omitting material only when absolutely necessary.[14] Even some of his more unusual interpretation are not without precedent and are possible renderings of the Hebrew text. The envious motive of the serpent,[15] while not explicitly stated in Genesis, is nonetheless implied and Josephus' interpretation is quite plausible.[16] For this reason we can be relatively confident that his interpretations were representative of Palestinian Judaism in the first century

The use made of the works of Josephus by the early church fathers varied greatly. In the western church only Tertullian utilised him to any great extent.[17] Minucius Felix cites him in support of his argument that the Jews foresook God before He forsook them.[18] Josephus was more widely read in the eastern church, but it was not until the time of Origen that his works had any influence on biblical exegesis.[19] Origen found in Josephus an extra-biblical source of historical information, and adopted many of Josephus' additions to the biblical accounts.[20] When compared to the influence that Philo had on biblical exegesis, Josephus' contribution was small. He was seen as a historical witness (particularly valuable in his contributions to chronology)[21] whereas Philo was viewed as a pattern for the allegorical method. For this reason it is unwise (as some Creationists are in the habit of doing) to exaggerate the impact of Josephus' interpretation of Genesis on the early church simply because he is a more favourable witness.

Rob Bradshaw, Webmaster

References

[1] H. Schreckenburg "Flavius Josephus," G.W. Bromiley, gen.ed., International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, rev. Vol. 2. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982), 1132-1133.

[2] Josephus, Life, 1; William Whiston, The Works of Josephus (Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 1987), 1. In this translation the traditional reference is given first, followed by the reference to the Greek text paragraph number in brackets, e.g. Josephus, Antiquities, 1.1.2 (34).

[3] Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament. (Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 1992), 8.

[4] Mason, 24-26.

[5] See further Mason, 7-33.

[6] Mason, 8.

[7] Mason, 10-19.

[8] They were used, for example, by Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Eusebius and Jerome.

[9] Origen, Commentary in Matthew 10.17; Celsus 1.47 (ANF, Vol. 4, 416).

[10] Mason, 10.

[11] Mason, 36, but note 51, n.1.

[12] H.W. Basser, "Josephus As Exegete," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107 (1987): 21.

[13] A good example of this is Josephus' interpretation of the four rivers in Eden (Antiquities, 1.1.3 (38-39) which are based on etymology and not created by reading a Platonic philosophy into the text as Philo had done. Basser, 26.

[14] Basser, 22, 27, 30.

[15] Josephus, Antiquities, 1.1.4 (1.41-42).

[16] Basser, 27.

[17] Michael E. Hardwick, Josephus as an Historical Source in Patristic Literature Through Eusebius, Brown Judaic Studies 128 (Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press., 1989), 112.

[18] Minucius Felix, Octavius, 33 (ANF, Vol. 4, 193-194).

[19] Hardwick, 114.

[20] Hardwick, 116.

[21] Hardwick, 114. Josephus was used by both Theophilus of Antioch (Autolycus, 3.24-25) and Eusebius as a source of chronological data. Hardwick, 11, 95.

Bibliographies

Book or monograph Louis. H. Feldman, Josephus and Modern Scholarship, 1937-1980. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1984. Hbk. ISBN: 3110081385. pp.1055. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Louis H. Feldman, Josephus: A Supplementary Bibliography. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, Vol 645. New York: Garland, 1986. ISBN: 0824087925. pp.696. {Amazon.com}

Primary Sources

Book or monograph Steve N. Mason, ed., Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary - Judaean Antiquities 1-4 (Vol. 3; trans. Feldman, L. H.) Leiden, Brill, 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 9004106790. pp.288. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph K.H. Rengstorf, A Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus, 4 Vols. Leiden: Brill, 1973-83. Hbk. ISBN: 9004018573. pp.2247. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph The Works of JosephusWilliam Whiston, translator, The Works of Josephus. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 1987. Hbk. ISBN: 0913573868. pp.926. {CBD} {Amazon.com}

Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Harold W. Attridge, The Interpretation of Biblical History in the Antiquitates Judaicae of Flavius Josephus. Harvard Dissertations in Religion, No. 7. Missoula: Scholars, 1976. Pbk. ISBN: 0891300813. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book H.W. Attridge, "Josephus and his Works," Michael E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Literature of Jewish People in Period of 2nd Temple & Talmud. Philadelphia: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 1984. Hbk. ISBN: 0800606035. pp. 185-232. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book David A. Barish, "The Autobiography of Josephus and the Hypothesis of a Second Edition of His Antiquities," Harvard Theological Review 71.1-2 (1978): 61-75.
Article in Journal or Book H.W. Basser, "Josephus As Exegete," Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107 (1987): 21-30.
Article in Journal or Book Albert I. Baumgarten, "Josephus and Hippolytus on the Pharisees," Hebrew Union College Annual 55 (1984): 1-25.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Gedaliah Episode and Its Sequels in Josephus," Journal for the Study of Pseudepigrapha 12 (1994): 21-46.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Joash and Elisha in Josephus. Ant. 9.177-185," Abr-Nahrain 32 (1994): 28-46.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Amaziah of Judah According to Josephus (Ant. 9,186-204)," Antonianum 70.1 (1995): 3-30.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Abimelech, King of Shechem, According to Josephus," Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 72 (1996): 146-164.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Ahaz, King of Judah according to Josephus," Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 10.1 (1996): 28-52.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Athaliah's Coup and Overthrow According to Josephus," Antonianum 71.2 (1996): 191-210.
On-line Resource Christopher T. Begg, "Jotham and Amon: Two Minor Kings of Judah According to Josephus," Bulletin for Biblical Research 6 (1996): 1-13.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Solomon's Two Dreams According to Josephus," Antonianum 71.4 (1996): 687-704.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Cisjordanian Altar(s) and Their Associated Rites According to Josephus," Biblische Zeitschrift 41.2 (1997): 192-211.
On-line Resource Christopher T. Begg, "David's Second Sparing of Saul According to Josephus," Tyndale Bulletin 48.1 (1997): 93-117.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "David's Transfer of the Ark According to Josephus," Bulletin for Biblical Research 7 (1997): 10 36.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Jeroboam-Ahijah Encounter according to Josephus," Abr-Nahrain 34 (1997): 1-17.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Samuel Leader of Israel According to Josephus," Antonianum 72.2 (1997): 199-216.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Samuel's Farewell Discourse According to Josephus," Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 11.1 (1997): 56-77.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "Solomon's Apostasy (1 Kgs 11:1-13) According to Josephus," Journal for the Study of Judaism 28.3 (1997): 294-313.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Transjordanian Altar (Josh 22:10-34) According to Josephus (Ant. 5.100-114) and Pseudo-Philo (LAB 22.1-8)," Andrews University Seminary Studies 35.1 (1997): 5-19.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Assassination of Ishbosheth according to Josephus," Antonianum 73.2 (1998): 241-253.
On-line Resource Christopher T. Begg, "David and Mephibosheth According to Josephus," Andrews University Seminary Studies 36.2 (Autumn 1998): 165-182.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "David's Dismissal by the Philistines according to Josephus," Theologische Zeitschrift 54.1 (1998): 111-119.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "David's Double Escape According to Josephus," Journal of Progressive Judaism 10 (1998): 28-45.
On-line Resource Christopher T. Begg, "The Return of the Ark according to Josephus," Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 15-37.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Revolt of Sheba According to Josephus," Jian Dao 9 (1998): 1-26.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "David's Reaction to the Death of Saul According to Josephus," Jian Dao 11 (1999): 1-13.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "King Saul's First Sin According to Josephus," Antonianum 74.4 (1999): 685-696.
Article in Journal or Book Christopher T. Begg, "The Ai-Achan Story (Joshua 7-8) according to Josephus," Jian Dao 16 (2001): 1-20.
Article in Journal or Book Nachman Ben-Yehuda, "Where Masada's Defenders Fell, a Garbled Passage in Josephus Has Obscured the Location of the Mass Suicide," Biblical Archaeology Review 24.6 (1998): 32-39.
Book or monograph Bentley-Taylor: Josephus: A Unique WitnessDavid Bentley-Taylor, Josephus: A Unique Witness. Christian Focus Publications, 2000. Pbk. ISBN: 1857924991. pp.139. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Helen K. Bond, "New Currents in Josephus Research," Currents in Research: Biblical Studies 8 (2000): 162-190.
On-line Resource Pieter J.J. Botha, "History, rhetoric and the writings of Josephus," Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 1-20.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book F.F. Bruce, "Josephus and Daniel," Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute 4 (1965): 148-62. [Presidential Address to the Society for Old Testament Study, London, January 1965.]
Book or monograph G.F. Chestnut, The First Christian Histories: Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret and Evagrius, 2nd edn. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1998. Pbk. ISBN: 0865542031.
On-line Resource Duane L. Christensen, "Josephus and the twenty-two-book canon of sacred scripture," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.1 (March 1986): 37-46.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Cohen: Josephus in Galilee and RomeShaye J.D. Cohen, Josephus in Galilee and Rome: His Vita and Development as a Historian. Leiden: Brill, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0391041584. pp.297. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Shaye J.D. Cohen & Joshua J. Schwartz, eds., Studies in Josephus and the Varieties of Ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman Jubilee Volume. Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Leiden: Brill, 2006. Hbk ISBN: 9004153896. pp.328. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Shaye Cohen, "History and Historiography in the Against Apion of Josephus," History and Theory XXVII (1988): 1-11.
On-line Resource Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare [1856-1924], "An Old Armenian Version of Josephus," Journal of Theological Studies 9 No 36 July 1908): 577-583.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph Louis H Feldman & Gaohei Hata, Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987. Pbk. ISBN: 0814318320. pp.448. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Louis H. Feldman, "Origen's Contra Celsus and Josephus' Contra Apionem: The Issue of Jewish Origins," Vigiliae Christianae 44.2 (1990): 105-135.
Article in Journal or Book Louis H. Feldman, "Josephus' Portrait of Elisha," Novum Testamentum 36.1 (1994): 1-28.
Book or monograph Louis H. Feldman, Studies in Josephus' Rewritten Bible. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, Vol. 58. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Hbk. ISBN: 9004108394. pp.663. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Louis H. Feldman, "Josephus's View of the Amalekites," Bulletin for Biblical Research 12.2 (2002): 161-186.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Louis.H. Feldman & Gaohei Hata, eds. Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity. Detroit / Leiden: Wayne University Press / Brill, 1987. Pbk. ISBN: 9004085548. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Louis H. Feldman & Gaohei Hata, eds. Josephus, the Bible and History. Wayne State University Press, 1989. Pbk. ISBN: 0814319831. pp.473. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Louis H. Feldman, "Josephus' portrait of Jeroboam," Andrews University Seminary Studies 31.1 (Spring 1993): 29-51.View in PDF format pdf
On-line Resource Louis H. Feldman, "Josephus' Portrait of Asa," Bulletin for Biblical Research 4 (1994): 41-60.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book Louis H. Feldman, "Josephus' Portrait of Ahasuerus," Australian Biblical Review 42 (1994): 17-38.
Book or monograph Josephus' Contra Apionem: Studies in Its Character and Context, with a Latin Concordance to the Portion Missing in GreekLouis H. Feldman & John R. Levison, eds., Josephus' Contra Apionem: Studies in Its Character and Context, with a Latin Concordance to the Portion Missing in Greek. Arbeiten Zur Geschichte Des Antiken Judentums & Des Urchristentums. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Hbk. ISBN: 9004103252. pp.400. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Louis H. Feldman, "Philo's View of Moses' Birth and Upbringing," Catholic Biblical Quarterly 64.2 (2002): 258-281.
On-line Resource Louis H. Feldman, "The Command, according to Philo, Pseudo-Philo, and Josephus, to annihilate the seven nations of Canaan," Andrews University Seminary Studies 41.1 (Spring 2003): 13-29.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Thomas W. Franxman, Genesis and the 'Jewish Antiquities' of Flavius Josephus, Biblica et Orientalia, 35. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1979.
On-line Resource Flavius Josephus Home Page (G. J. Goldberg)
Article in Journal or Book Martin Goodman, "Josephus as Roman Citizen," F. Parente, & J. Sievers, eds., Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period. Essays in Memory of Morton Smith. Studia Post Biblica, 41. Leiden: Brill, 1994. Hbk. ISBN: 9004101144. pp.329-338. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Martin Goodman, "A Note on the Qumran Sectarians, the Essenes and Josephus," Journal of Jewish Studies 46.1-2 (1995): 161-166.
Book or monograph Lester L. Grabbe, Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian: The Roman Period. London: SCM Press Ltd., 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0334025788. pp.768. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Leonard Greenspoon, "The Pronouncement Story in Philo and Josephus," Semeia 20 (1981): 73-80.
Article in Journal or Book Michael E. Hardwick, Josephus as an Historical Source in Patristic Literature Through Eusebius, Brown Judaic Studies 128 (Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1989.
Article in Journal or Book G. Hata, "Is the Greek Version of Josephus' 'Jewish War' a translation or a Rewriting of the First Version?" Jewish Quarterly Review 66 (1975): 89-108.
Book or monograph McLaren: Turbulent Times?James S. McLaren, Turbulent Times? Josephus and Scholarship on Judaea in the First Century CE. Sheffield: Continuum International Publishing Group - Sheffield Academic Press, 1998. Hbk. ISBN: 1850758913. pp.300. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book James S. McLaren, "Ananus, James, and Earliest Christianity. Josephus' Account of the Death of James," Journal of Theological Studies 52.1 (2001): 1-25.
Book or monograph Madewr: Josephus and the Politics of HistoriographyGottfried Mader, Josephus and the Politics of Historiography: Apologetic and Impression Management in the Bellum Judaicum. Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava. Supplementum, No 205. Leiden: Brill, 2000. Hbk. ISBN: 9004114467. pp.172. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource Josephus and Jesus (Paul L. Maier)
Book or monograph Mason: Flavius Josephus on the PhariseesSteve Mason, Flavius Josephus on the Pharisees: A Composition Critical Study. Studia Post-Biblica, Vol 39. Leiden: Brill, 1991. Pbk. ISBN: 0391041541. pp.424. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Mason: Josephus and the New TestamentSteve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 1992. ISBN: 0943575990. pp.248. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Steve Mason, "Will the Real Josephus Please Stand Up?" Biblical Archaeology Review 23.5 (1997): 58-65, 67-68.
Book or monograph Mason: Understanding JosephusSteve Mason, Understanding Josephus. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series, No. 32. Sheffield: Continuum International Publishing Group - Sheffield Academic Press, 1998. Hbk. ISBN: 1850758786. pp.260. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book David P. Moessner, "'Eyewitnesses,' 'Informed Contemporaries,' and 'Unknowing Inquirers': Josephus' Criteria for Authentic Historiography and the Meaning of Parakoloutheo," Novum Testamentum 38.2, (1996): 105-122.
Article in Journal or Book H.W. Montefiore, "Joesphus and the New Testament," Novum Testamentum 4 (1960): 139-160.
Article in Journal or Book H.W. Montefiore, "Joesphus and the New Testament," Novum Testamentum 4 (1960): 307-318.
On-line Resource James A. Montgomery, "The Religion of Flavius Josephus," Jewish Quarterly Review 11 (1920-1921): 277-305.
Article in Journal or Book E. Nodet, "Josephus and the Pentateuch," Journal for the Study of Judaism 28.2 (1997): 154-194.
Article in Journal or Book James Carleton Paget, "Some Observations on Josephus and Christianity," Journal of Theological Studies 52.2 (2001): 539-624.
Book or monograph F. Parente, & J. Sievers, eds., Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period. Essays in Memory of Morton Smith. Studia Post Biblica, 41. Leiden: Brill, 1994. Hbk. ISBN: 9004101144. pp.392. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Sarah J.K. Pearce, "Flavius Josephus as Interpreter of Biblical Law: the Council of Seven and the Levitical Servants in Jewish Antiquities 4:124," Heythrop Journal 36.4 (1995): 477-492.
Book or monograph Tessa Rakak, Josephus: the Man and His Society. London: Duckworth, 1983.
Book or monograph Rajak: Josephus: The Historian and his SocietyTessa Rajak, Josephus: The Historian and his Society, 2nd edn. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd., 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0715631705. pp.272. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Karl Heinrich Rengstorf, ed., The Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus, Study Edition. Leiden: Brill, 2002. Hbk. ISBN: 9004128298. pp.2247. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource John H. Rhoads, "Josephus Misdated The Census of Quirinius," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 54.1 (March 2011): 65-87.View in PDF format pdf
Article in Journal or Book D.R. Schwartz, "Josephus and Philo on Pontius Pilate," The Jerusalem Cathedra 3 (1983): 26-45.
Book or monograph Seth Schwartz, Josephus and Judaean Politics. Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition, 18. Leiden: Brill, 1997. Hbk. ISBN: 9004092307. pp.257. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book John Shrugnell, "Flavius Josephus and the Essenes: Antiquities XVIII. 18-22," Journal of Biblical Literature 77 (1958): 106-115.
Book or monograph R.J.H. Shutt, Studies in Josephus. 1961.
Article in Journal or Book Dorothy I. Sly, "1 Peter 3:6b in the Light of Philo and Josephus," Journal of Biblical Literature 110.1 (1991): 126-129.
Book or monograph Gregory E. Sterling, Historiography and Self-Definition: Josephus, Luke-Acts and Apologetic Historiography. Supplements to Novum Testamentum, Vol 64. Leiden: Brill, 1992. Hbk. ISBN: 9004095012. pp.456. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book M. Stern, "Notes on the Story of Joseph the Tobiad," (Josephus, Ant. II, 154ff.)," Tarbiz 32 (1962): 35-47.
Article in Journal or Book J. Strugnell, "Flavius Josephus and the Essenes: Antiquities xviii.18-22," Journal of Biblical Literature 77 (1958): 106-15.
Article in Journal or Book James D. Tabor, "'Returning to Divinity': Josephus Portrayal of the Disapperances of Enoch, Elijah, and Moses," Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989): 225-38.
Book or monograph H. St. J. Thackeray, Josephus, the Man and the Historian. Hilda Stich Stoock Lectures. New York, 1929.
Article in Journal or Book Timothy Thornton, "Anti-Samaritan Exegesis Reflected in Josephus' Retelling of Deuteronomy, Joshua, and Judges," Journal of Theological Studies 47.1 (1996): 125-130.
Book or monograph P. Villalba i Varneda, ed., The Historical Method of Flavius Josephus. Leiden: Brill, 1986. Hbk. ISBN: 9004076166. pp.296.
Article in Journal or Book D.S. Wallace-Hadrill, "Eusebius of Caesarea and the Testimonium Flavium (Josephus, Antiquities, XVIII 63f.)," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 25.4 (1974): 353-362.
Article in Journal or Book Herold Weiss, "The Sabbath in the Writings of Josephus," Journal for the Study of Judaism 29.4 (1998): 363-390.
Article in Journal or Book Alice Whealey, Josephus on Jesus: Evidence from the First Millennium," Theologische Zeitschrift 51.4 (1995): 285-304.
On-line Resource Solomon Zeitlin, "The Christ Passage in Josephus," The Jewish Quarterly Review, n.s. 18 (1928): 231-255.

Biographies

On-line Resource Flavius Josephus (Karl Hoeber)

Related Subjects

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