Early Church Councils & Creeds

Primary Sources

Book or monograph Carl Joseph von Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church from Original Documents. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1896. Reprinted P. Bedjan, ed. Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum Syriace, Vols. 1-5.. Paris & Leipzig: Harrassowitz, 1975. ISBN: 0404032605. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph H.R. Percival, ed., "The Seven Ecumenical Councils," Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, Vol. 14. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1899.
Book or monograph H.J. Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils: Text, Tradition and Commentary. St. Louis: Herder, 1937.
Book or monograph Stevenson: Creeds, Councils & ControversiesJ. Stevenson, ed. Creeds, Councils and Controversies: Documents Illustrating the History of the Church AD 337-461, 2nd end edn. London: SPCK, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0281043272. {Amazon.com}

Secondary Sources

P.R. Amidon, "The Procedure of St. Cyrian's Synods," Vigiliae Christianae, Vol 37 (1983): 328-339.
Book or monograph F.J. Babcock, The History of the Creeds. New York: MacMillan, 1938.
Book or monograph T.H. Bindley, The Oecumenical Councils of the Faith, 4th edn., 1899. Introduction and Notes by F.W. Green. London: Methuen, 1950. pp.246.
Book or monograph Gerald L. Bray, Creeds, Councils and Christ. Did the Early Christians Misrepresent Jesus? Evangleical Press, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 1857922808. pp.224. {Amazon.com}
Article in Journal or Book Paul F. Bradshaw, "The Gospel and the Catechumenate in the Third Century," Journal of Theological Studies 50.1 (1999): 143-152.
Book or monograph A.E. Burn, A Introduction ot the Creeds. London: Methuen, 1899.
Book or monograph F.L. Cross, The Early Christian Fathers. Studies in Theology 1. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd., 1960. Hbk. pp.87-99.
Book or monograph Oscar Cullman, The Earliest Christian Confessions. J.K.S. Reid, translator. London: Luterworth, 1949. pp.64.
Article in Journal or Book Bruce A. Demarest, "Christendom's Creeds: Their Relevance in the Modern World," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 21.4 (1978): 345-356.
On-line Resource Bruce A. Demarest, "The Contemporary Relevance of Christendom's Creeds," Themelios 7.2 (January 1982): 9-16.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph Leo Donald Davis, The First Seven Ecumenical Councils (325-787): Their History and Theology. Liturgical Press, 1990. Pbk. ISBN: 0814656161. pp.400. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph C.H. Dodd [1884-1973], The Apostolic Preaching and its Developments. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1936. Pbk. ISBN: 0340002204. pp.96. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Francis Dvornik, The Ecumenical Councils. Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Catholicism 82. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1961. pp.112.
Book or monograph P.T. Fuhrmann, Introduction to the Great Creeds of the Church. Philadelphia, 1960.
G.V. Florosky, "The Authority of the Ancient Councils and the Tradition of the Fathers," G. Müller & W. Zeller, ed. Glaube, Geist, Geschichte. Leiden: Brill, 1967.
Book or monograph R.P.C. Hanson, Tradition in the Early Church. 1962. pp.52-74.
Book or monograph C.J. Hefele, A History of the Christian Councils, 5 Vols. Edinburgh, 1883-96.
On-line Resource Colin J. Hemer, "The Manchester Rotas / Sator Square," Faith and Thought 105.1&2 (1978): 36-40.View in PDF format pdf [Reproduced by kind permission of the copyright holder]
Book or monograph Philip Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the Twenty Great Councils, 325-1870. London: Burns and Oates, 1961. Pbk. ISBN: 0223306002. pp.342.
Book or monograph H. Jedin, Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church. Freiburg, 1960.
On-line Resource Graham Keith, "Formulation of Creeds in the Early Church," Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 13-35.View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph J.N.D. Kelly, The Athanasian Creed. New York: Harper & Row, 1964. Hbk. ISBN: 0713605049. pp.xi + 140.
Book or monograph J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 3rd edn. London: Longmans, 1972. Hbk. ISBN: 0582489318. {Amazon.com}
Wolfram Kinzig & Markus Vinzent, "Recent Research on the Origin of the Creed," Journal of Theological Studies 50.2 (1999): 535-559.
G. Kretchmar, "The Councils of the Ancient Church," H.H. Maghull, ed. The Councils of the Church: History and Analysis. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966.
Book or monograph Leith: Creeds of the ChurchesJohn H. Leith, Creeds of the Churches: A Reader in Christian Doctrine, from the Bible to the Present, 3rd edn. Westminster John Knox Press, 1983. Pbk. ISBN: 0804205264. pp.736. {Amazon.com}
On-line Resource James Edward McGoldrick, "The Historical Necessity For Creeds And Confessions Of Faith," Reformation & Revival 10.2 (Spring 2001): 15-31. View in PDF format pdf
Book or monograph H.J. Margull, ed. The Councils of the Church: History and Analysis. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1966.
T. Evan Pollard, "The Creeds of A.D. 325: Antioch, Caesarea, Nicaea," Scottish Journal of Theology 13 (1960): 278-
Marc A. Puglise, "How Important is the Filioque For Reformed Orthodoxy?" Westminster Theological Journal 66.1 (Spring 2004): 159-177.
Book or monograph Alan Richardson, Creeds in the Making: A Short Introduction to the History of Christian Doctrine. London: SCM Press, 1941. pp.132.
A.M. Ritter, "Creeds," Ian Hazlett, ed. Early Christianity: Origins and Evolution to A.D. 600. In Honour of W.H.C. Frend. Nashville: Abingdon, 1991. pp.92-100.
On-line Resource William Sanday [1843–1920], "Recent Research on the Origin of the Creed." Journal of Theological Studies 1 No 1 (Oct. 1899): 3-22.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
On-line Resource William Sanday [1843–1920], "Further Research on the History of the Creed," Journal of Theological Studies 3 No 9 (Oct. 1901): 1-21.View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph Scaff: Creeds of ChristendomPhilip Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 Vols., revised. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1984. Hbk. ISBN: 0801082323. {CBD} {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, Vol. 1Norman P. Tanner, Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, Vol. 1. Nicaea 1 to Lateran V. London / Washingdon, D.C.: Sheed & Ward / Georgetown University Press, 1990. pp. xxv + 655. {Amazon.com}

Related Subjects


Councils | Basel | Constance | Constantinople II | Constantinople III | Constantinople IV | Florence | Lateran I | Lateran II | Lateran III | Lateran IV | Lyons I | Lyons II | Nicea II | Pisa | Vienne | Whitby | Worms

Apostle's Creed | Chalcedon | Constantnople I | Ephesus | Nicaea

London School of Theology