Backhouse & Tylor’s Early Church History to the Time of Constantine

Edward Backhouse [1808-1879] & Charles Tylor [1816-1902], Early Church History to the Death of Constantine, 3rd edn. Early Church History to the Death of Constantine was Edward Backhouse’s final work and was completed posthumously by Charles Tylor. Backhouse intended to write church history from the perspective of The Society of Friends (Quakers).

His desire, perhaps not fully allowed to himself, was to find out with what early early teachers stigmatised as heretics he himself could in any way sympathise; what protests against priestly assumptions and ritualistic corruptions had been made in the early ages of the Church.

Thomas Hodgkin [1831-1913], Biographical Preface, p.xiii.

Edward Backhouse [1808-1879] & Charles Tylor [1816-1902], Early Church History to the Death of Constantine, 3rd edn. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. Ltd., 1892. Hbk. pp.333. [Click to download the complete book in PDF]

The book contains a number of photographs and colour plates. This title is in the pubic domain.

Contents

Biographical Preface

Part I to A.D. 200

  1. Promulgation of the Gospel – The New Society- Picture of Heathenism
  2. Nero’s Persecution – Destruction of Jerusalem – Jewish-Christian Church
  3. Domitian and Nerva – The Apostle John – Epistle of Clement of Rome and Letter to Diognetus
  4. Trajan and Pliny – martyrdom of Ignatius – His Epistles
  5. Hadrian – Insurrection of the Jews – Marcus Aurelius – Perseuction and Calumnies
  6. Justin Martyr
  7. The Octavius of Miniucius Felix – Martyrdom of Polycarp
  8. Martyrs of Lyons and Vienne
  9. Ireneus – Gnosticism – The Montanists – Attitude of the Church Towards Dissenters
  10. Worship in the Early Church – The Agape of Lord’s Supper
  11. Baptism – Infant Baptism
  12. Prayer – Almsgiving – Miraculous and Spiritual Gifts – Superstitious Practices
  13. Government of the Church – Maintenance of Ministers – Clergy and Laity – Church Action and Discipline – Places of Worship
  14. Holy Days and Festivals – Marriage – Asceticism – Burial
  15. The Catacombs
  16. Spread of the Gospel – Life ofth Early Christians, its Lights and Shadows
  17. Pagan Animosity and Christian Loyalty – The Philosophers assail the Church
  18. Christians and the Military Service – Slavery – Oaths
  • Appendix to Part I.

Part II – From A.D. 200 to the Death of Constantine, A.D. 337

  1. The Martyrs of Africa – Alexander Severus favours the Christians
  2. Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria
  3. Hippolytus – The Churches have rest – The Decian Persecution – Cyprian – The Lapsed – Gallus and the Pestilence
  4. Origen
  5. Persecution undeer Valerian – Cyprian’s Martyrdom – His Life and Teaching – Novatian
  6. The Emperoprs Gallienus and Aurelian – Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, and Gregory Thaumaturgus
  7. The Diocletian Persecution
  8. The Diocletian Persecution (continued – Constantine
  9. The Diocletian Martyrs
  10. Constantine’s Legislation – He Assumes Power over the Church – The Donatists – The Christians Slaughter one another
  11. Manicheism and Sabellianism – The Arian Controversy – The Council of Nicaea
  12. Intolerant Edits of Constantine – He espouses the Arian Cause – Athanasius – Baptism and death of the Emperor – Lactantius
  13. Rapid Growth of Ritualism – Manner of Worship in the Fourth Century – the Eucharist – Baptism
  14. Power of the Bishops – Pretensions of Rome – Paul of Samosata – Maintenance of the Clergy – Tithes – Clerical Dress
  15. The New Age of Art and Splendour – Consecration of Churches – Pictures in Churches – Embroidered Garments – Lighted Tapers – The Catacombs
  16. Prayers for the Dead – Invocation of Saints – Worship of Relics – Fasts and Festivals – Education – Church Buildings
  17. “Fordbidding to Marry” – and “Commanding to abstain from Meats” – The HErmists – Paul – Anthony – Monks and Nuns
  18. The Gospel continues to spread – Armenia – Abyssinia – Britain – Assimilation of the Church to the World – The Magistracy – War – Conclusion
  • Index

 

Public Domain Articles from the Journal of Theological Studies (1899-1909)

The following Public Domain articles from the Journal of Theological Studies relating to early church history are now available on-line in PDF:

William Sanday [1843–1920], “Recent Research on the Origin of the Creed.” Journal of Theological Studies 1 No 1 (Oct. 1899): 3-22.

William Sanday [1843–1920], “Further Research on the History of the Creed,” Journal of Theological Studies 3 No 9 (Oct. 1901): 1-21.

Henry Barclay Swete [1835-1917], “Eucharistic Belief in the Second and Third Centuries,” Journal of Theological Studies 3 No 10 (Oct. 1901): 161-177.

Andrew Ewbank Burn [1864-1927], “The Textus Receptus of the Apostle’s Creed,” Journal of Theological Studies 3 No 12 (July 1902): 481-500.

John Chapman [1885-1934], “The Order of the Treatises and Letters in the MSS of St. Cyprian,” Journal of Theological Studies 4 No 13 (Oct. 1902): 103-123.

Edward William Watson [1859-1936], “Cyprianica,” Journal of Theological Studies 4 No 13 (Oct. 1902): 131.

Edward William Watson [1859-1936], “The Interpolations in St. Cyprian’s De Unitate Ecclesiae,” Journal of Theological Studies 5 No 19 (April 1904): 432-436.

John Chapman [1885-1934], “The Interpolations in St. Cyprian’s De Unitate Ecclesiae,” Journal of Theological Studies 5 No 20 (July 1904): 634-636.

Arthur James Mason [1851-1928], “Note on the Text of the Hymns of Hilary,” Journal of Theological Studies 5 No 20 (July 1904): 636.

Andrew Ewbank Burn [1864-1927], “The Textus Receptus of the Apostle’s Creed,” Journal of Theological Studies 3 No 12 (July 1902): 481-500.

John Chapman [1885-1934], “St Irenaeus on the Dates of the Gospels,” Journal of Theological Studies 6 No 24 (July 1905): 563-599.

Joseph Bickersteth Mayor [1828-1911], “The Epistle of St Jude and the Marcosian Heresy,” Journal of Theological Studies 6 No 24 (July 1905): 569-577.

Arthur Sumner Walpole [1850/51-1920], “Hymns Attributed to Hilary of Poitiers,” Journal of Theological Studies 6 No 24 (July 1905): 599-603.

William Emery Barnes [1859-1939] “The ‘Nicene’ Creed In The Syriac Psalter,” Journal of Theological Studies 7 No 27 (April 1906): 441-449.

John Chapman [1885-1934], “Papias on the Age of our Lord,” Journal of Theological Studies 9 No 33 (Oct. 1907): 42-61.

Cuthbert H. Turner [1860–1930], “Prolegomena To The Testimonia Of St Cyprian. II,” Journal of Theological Studies 9 No 33 (Oct. 1907): 62-87.

Hugh Jackson Lawlor [1860-1938], “The Heresy of the Phrygians,” Journal of Theological Studies 9 No 36 July 1908): 481-499.

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare [1856-1924], “An Old Armenian Version of Josephus,” Journal of Theological Studies 9 No 36 July 1908): 577-583.

Henry Hoyle Howorth [1842-1923], “The Influence of St Jerome on the Canon of the Western Church. I,” Journal of Theological Studies 10 No 40 (July 1909): 481.

H.N. Bate’s History of the Church to AD 325 now available on-line

The following public domain book is now available on-line in PDF:

H.N. Bate, History Of The Church to A.D. 325, 2nd edn. London: Rivingtons, 1924. Hbk. pp.140.

I remember finding this book extremely helpful when I was studying church history and so was pleased to find that the copyright has expired. It can now be downloaded from here.

Table of Contents

I. The Roman World and the Jewish Religion
II. The Apostolic Age
III. Church and State down to A.D. 112
IV. Jewish Christianity
V. Gnosticism and Montanism
VI. Apologists of the Second Century
VII. Church and State from Hadrian to Commodus
VIII. The Churches of Rome and Alexandria
IX. Church and State from Septimius Severus to Constantine
X. The Council of Nicaea
XI. The Church Calendar
Chronological Table
Index

A possible Ph.D. Thesis for someone

When studying the Montanists we have to recognise that the majority of the information we have comes from their opponents, who recycled the same accusations slightly different forms (See John De Soyres work [https://earlychurch.org.uk/montanism_desoyres.html]). These snippets hardly paint a balanced picture. For example:

1) Monatus was a recent convert [i.e. not grounded in the faith – bound to be led astray into error]

2) He was from Phrygia [They are all mad there]

3) His first converts were of the female gender [Weak-willed and easily deceived]

4) They left their husbands [Shame on them!]

5) He prophesied that the new Jerusalem would descend in Phrygia [the arrogant cheek!]

6) The Montanists introduce new fasts and forbid certain foods [Think that innovation is a sign of inspiration]

It appears to me that the opponents of Montanism may well be using stock accusations used of other heresies in their attacks. Is suspect that this article may be relevant here:

V. Burrus, “The Heretical Woman as Symbol in (bishop) Alexander, Athanasius, Epiphanius, and Jerome,” Harvard Theological Review 84 (1991): 229-48.

I think that it would make a good Ph.D thesis for someone to examine all the accusations made against the Montanists and see whether the same charges were made against other heresies in order to test this theory.

Please let me know if you take up the challenge.