B.J. Kidd’s Church History to AD 461

Beresford James Kidd [1863-1948], A History of the Church to A.D. 461, 3 Vols

Beresford James Kidd’s classic 3-volume treatment of early church history to AD 461 entered the public domain this year. My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy available for digitisation.

Beresford James Kidd [1863-1948], A History of the Church to A.D. 461, 3 Vols. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1922. Hbk. pp.558+471+448. [Click to visit the download page]

Chapter 1. The Roman Empire

On the day of Pentecost, when the Church set out on its mission to the world, the field that lay immediately before it was the Roman Empire.

§ 1. In extent the Empire consisted, towards the end of the reign of its founder Augustus, 31 B.C-A.D. 14, of eight and twenty provinces. By the incorporation of dependencies such as Mauritania, 40, and Arabia, 105, by subdivision and re-arrangement, the twenty-eight had become ninety-nine at the opening of the reign of Diocletian, 284-305, its second founder. During the interval, no permanent acquisition of territory took place, save that Britain was annexed between the reigns of Claudius, 41-54, and Domitian, 81-96. The southern part of our island was occupied after the campaigns, 48-7, of Aulus Plautius. Then Julius Agricola, 78-85, extended the province to the line of forts which he built between the Forth and the Clyde. He would have brought Ireland also within the sway of Rome, had he not been refused an extra legion. But his conquests were abandoned, and the frontier withdrawn to the Wall of Hadrian, 122, from the Tyne to the Solway…

Volume 1, p.1.

Samuel Cheetham’s Church History

A History of the Christian Church by Samuel Cheetham
An audio version is available from Librevox

The complete text of Samuel Cheetham’s A History of the Christian Church During the First Six Centuries is available for free download in PDF. The endpiece map showing the Countries reached by Christianity in the First Three Centuries is also available a separate download (but is also included in the main PDF).

The folks at LibriVox have made available an audio version of the book, which should also prove very helpful.

Samuel Cheetham [3 March 1827 – 9 July 1908], A History of the Christian Church

Table of Contents

From the Origin of Christianity to the Edict of Milan (A.D. 313)

The Preparation of the World
1. Paganism
2. Judaism

The Apostolic Church
1. The Lord’s Ministry and the Church in Jerusalem
2. St Paul and the Gentile Church
3. James the Just
4. St Peter
5. St John
6. The remaining Apostles
7. Organization and Worship of the Church
8. Sects and Heresies

The Early Struggles of the Church
1. Jewish and Roman Persecution
2. The Intellectual Attack
3. The Christian Defence

Growth and Characteristics of the Church
1. Early Spread of the Gospel
2. Asiatic Churches
3. Alexandrian School
4. Africa
5. The Roman Church

The Great Divisions
1. Judaic Christianity
2. Marcion
3. Montanism
4. Gnosticism
5. Manichreism
6. The Catholic Church

The Theology of the Church and Its Opponents
1. Sources of Doctrine
A. Scripture
B. The Rule of Faith
2. Faith in the One God
3. The Holy Trinity
4. Chiliasm

The Organization of the Church
1. The Christian Ministry
2. Synods

Social Life and Ceremonies of the Church
1. Christian Life
2. Asceticism
3. Hermits
4. Discipline
5. Ceremonies
6 . Sacred Seasons
7. Architectural and other Art


From the Edict of Milan (A.D. 313) to the Accession of Pope Gregory the Great (A.D. 590)

The Church and the Empire
1. The Imperial Church
2. The Hierarchy
3. Patriarchs
4. Rome
5. Councils
6. The Fall of Paganism

Theology and Theologians
1. Literary Character of the Age
2. School of Antioch
3. School of Edessa
4. Alexandrian School
5. Latin Theology

Controversies on the Faith
I. Standards of Doctrine
1. Holy Scripture
2. The Church and its Tradition
3. Rules of Faith
II. The Holy Trinity
The Arian Controversy
Ill. The Incarnate Son
1. Apollinarianism
2. Nestorianism
3. Eutychianism
4. Monophysitism
IV. Origenism
V. Priscillianism
VI. Pelagianism

Discipline and Life of the Church
1. Law and Society
2. Donatism
3. Celibacy of the Clergy
4. Monachism

Ecclesiastical Ceremonies and Art
I. Rites and Ceremonies
1. Catechumenate and Baptism
2. The Holy Eucharist
3. The Hour-Offices
4. Matrimony
5. Care of the Sick and the Dead
6. Ordination
II. The Cycle of Festivals
1. The Week
2. Easter and Lent
3. The Saints and their Festivals
4. Calendars
5. Holy Places
III. Architecture and Art
1. Structure of Churches
2. Pictures in Churches
3. Sculpture

Growth of the Church
I. The Church in the East
II. The Conversion of the Teutons
1. The Goths
2. The Franks
III. The British Islands
1. The British Church
2. St Patrick and the Irish Church
3. St Columba and Iona

Ecclesiastical Dioceses
Countries reached by Christianity in the First Three Centunes

Alfred Plummer’s Church of the Early Fathers

I recent conducted a poll on the Facebook Group Theology on the Web asking members to vote to the most useful book on church history from a list of possible titles I had available to scan. The winner was a work by Alfred Plummer (1841-1926), which was regarded as one of that author’s most important books. The full text is now available on-line and is in the Public Domain.

Alfred Plummer, The Church of the Early Fathers, 6th edn. London: Longman, Green & Co., 1892. Hbk. pp.210.


The Christian Church has three ideals set before it in Scripture- to be Universal, to be Holy, and to be One. It is to ‘ make disciples of all the nations.’ It is to be ‘ without spot or wrinkle or any such thing. ‘It is to ‘ become one flock ‘ with a union between its members admitting of no lower standard than the Unity of the Divine Persons in the Godhead. The external history of the Church is the history of the attempt to realise the first of these three ideals; its internal history tells of the attempt to realise the second and third. The three taken together sum up what is meant by ecclesiastical history – the history of the spread of Christianity and of the development of Christian life and Christian doctrine. Thus a convenient division of the subject is at once suggested. Only the first of these three points is treated in this handbook the progress of the Church in the attempt to become universal, including all that impeded that progress, especially literary attack and civil persecution. The worship and discipline of the Church and the development of its doctrine, though often touched upon, are reserved for treatment in a separate volume.

The present sketch is limited to the Ante-Nicene period, and indeed to only a portion of that. Neither the Apostolic Age nor the history of Arianism falls within its scope. Its limits are, roughly speaking, the second and third centuries, or, more exactly, the period from the death of St. John, about A.D. 100, to the Edict of Toleration published at Milan by Constantine and Licinius A.D. 312 or 313.

It is obvious that in a volume of this size nothing more than a sketch can be attempted; but help will be offered to the student who desires to have fuller information and to examine original sources for himself. A list is given of some of the best and most easily accessible authorities, especially in the English language, together with the chief ancient witnesses from whom the information given by modern writers is ultimately derived. Perhaps in no branch of history is it more important to study original authorities than in the history of Christianity during the second and third centuries. Neither in number nor in bulk are these sources so formidable as in the later periods of Church history; so that the ordinary student may hope to do a good deal in the attempt to make himself acquainted with primary materials. Moreover, nearly all these early writings have been translated; so that even those who are unable to read Latin or Greek are never the less able to obtain fairly accurate knowledge of what these early writers in their own words tell us. This handbook will have failed in one of its objects if it does not lead some of those who use it to check its statements by a comparison with standard works, and above all by an appeal to the original authorities.

As references are almost entirely forbidden by the plan of this series, the compiler of this volume is unable to express in detail his obligations to other writers. They are very numerous to a large number of the works mentioned below, especially to those of Bishop Lightfoot and Dr. Schaff, and to the ‘ Dictionary of Christian Biography ‘ edited by Smith and W ace. An asterisk is prefixed to the name of modern writers whose writings are of special importance.

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H.N. Bate’s History of the Church to AD 325 now available on-line

The following public domain book is now available on-line in PDF:

H.N. Bate, History Of The Church to A.D. 325, 2nd edn. London: Rivingtons, 1924. Hbk. pp.140.

I remember finding this book extremely helpful when I was studying church history and so was pleased to find that the copyright has expired. It can now be downloaded from here.

Table of Contents

I. The Roman World and the Jewish Religion
II. The Apostolic Age
III. Church and State down to A.D. 112
IV. Jewish Christianity
V. Gnosticism and Montanism
VI. Apologists of the Second Century
VII. Church and State from Hadrian to Commodus
VIII. The Churches of Rome and Alexandria
IX. Church and State from Septimius Severus to Constantine
X. The Council of Nicaea
XI. The Church Calendar
Chronological Table